Cigarette smoking and urinary incontinence in women--a new calculative method of estimating the exposure to smoke.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1995 Nov;63(1):27-30. PMID: 8674561
Department of Obstet Gynecol, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between cigarette smoking and urinary incontinence. A group of 80 women with incontinence (Group A) were tested urodynamically and compared with a group of 80 continent women (Group B). Patients were divided into smokers (S) and non-smokers (NS) with the incontinent ones classified as suffering from stress (SI) or motor in-continent (UI). The assessment of the smoking behavior of each individual focused upon the tar and nicotine content of each cigarette. The overall exposure to smoke was assessed as follows: tar/nicotine content in mg per cigarette x consumed cigarettes per day x duration of smoking intervals in years. According to the obtained data smokers were divided into current smokers (cs) and stop/start smokers (sss), whereas the current smokers were subdivided into heavy current smokers (hcs) and light current smokers (lcs). Significantly, more S were observed in Group A compared with Group B (48/80 vs. 11/32, P<0.0005), whereas significantly more SI was found in NS compared with S (21/32 vs. 19/48, P<0.0025). Particularly hcs developed more frequently UI than SI, although this difference had no statistical significance. According to our data smoking women are more likely to develop incontinence, especially motor incontinence, than non-smokers. Heavy smokers seem to tend more to UI.