Sodium arsenite toxicity on hematology indices and reproductive parameters in Teddy goat bucks and their amelioration with vitamin C.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Feb 18. Epub 2020 Feb 18. PMID: 32072415
Arsenic is a major environmental toxicant of concern, affecting both female and male reproductive systems. The present study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of arsenic on semen quality and reproductive hormones of Teddy bucks, an important domestic species in regions of Pakistan. In addition to arsenic, vitamin C was fed to a subset of animals to determine if there were ameliorative effects on reproductive parameters. Sixteen adult Teddy bucks were randomly divided into four experimental groups: A (control), B (arsenic 5 mg/kg BW/day orally), and C (arsenic 5 mg/kg BW/day plus vitamin C of an oral dose of 200 mg/kg BW/day). The animals in experimental group D were given only vitamin C (oral dose of 200 mg/kg BW/day). Animals were fed treated food once a day for 12 weeks. Semen quality parameters (volume, motility, count, sperm morphology, live dead ratio, sperm membrane integrity, and sperm DNA integrity) of bucks from each experimental group were evaluated on a weekly basis. Hematology and the level of arsenic in the blood were assessed every 2 weeks. Serum was collected fortnightly to measure reproductive and stress hormones (testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormones, and cortisol). At the end of the study, all the animals were slaughtered, and the testes of all the animals were collected and evaluated for histopathology. Semen parameters in arsenic-treated bucks were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with controls. Moreover, the levels of male hormones (testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone) were significantly decreased in arsenic-treated animals, while cortisol was significantly increased with arsenic exposure. The histopathological lesions in thetestes were present in the form of the loss of germinal epithelium and atrophy of Leydig cells. Supplementation of vitamin C however ameliorated the adverse effects of arsenic on semen quality and hormones. The histopathological lesions were also ameliorated due to vitamin C treatment. This study demonstrates that arsenic can adversely affect reproductive endpoints in Teddy goat bucks and supports the hypothesis that vitamin C is an effective treatment in arsenic-induced toxicosis. This study has high significance for Pakistan, as water contaminated with arsenic is a top health concern and isa recurring issue for both domestic animals and humans.