Vegetable, fruit, and cereal intake and risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Japan.
Ann Nutr Metab. 2004 Nov-Dec;48(6):390-7. Epub 2004 Nov 30. PMID: 15583467
AIMS: There has been little interest in the role of nutrition in prevention of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We investigated the relationship between dietary intake of vegetables, fruit, cereals, antioxidants, and fiber and the risk of IPF in Japan. METHODS: Included were 104 cases aged 40 years or over who were within 2 years of the diagnosis in accordance with the most recent criteria. Controls aged 40 years or over comprised 56 hospitalized patients diagnosed as having acute bacterial pneumonia and 4 outpatients with common cold. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age, sex, region, pack-years of smoking, employment status, occupational exposure, saturated fatty acid intake, and body mass index. RESULTS: Consumption of fruit in the second and third quartiles was associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of IPF. Although not statistically significant, a beneficial association between soluble fiber intake and IPF was found. No statistically significant dose-response relationship was observed between intake of green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, cereals, beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, or insoluble fiber and the risk of IPF. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that fruit intake may confer protection against the development of IPF.