Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):735-41. PMID: 17344494
BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists regarding the effects of soy consumption on the metabolic syndrome in humans. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the effects of soy consumption on components of the metabolic syndrome, plasma lipids, lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and glycemic control in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: This randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken in 42 postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to consume a control diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, DASH), a soy-protein diet, or a soy-nut diet, each for 8 wk. Red meat in the DASH period was replaced by soy-protein in the soy-protein period and by soy-nut in the soy-nut period. RESULTS: The soy-nut regimen decreased the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance score significantly compared with the soy-protein (difference in percentage change: -7.4 +/- 0.8; P<0.01) or control (-12.9 +/- 0.9; P<0.01) diets. Consumption of soy-nut also reduced fasting plasma glucose more significantly than did the soy-protein (-5.3 +/- 0.5%; P<0.01) or control (-5.1 +/- 0.6%; P<0.01) diet. The soy-nut regimen decreased LDL cholesterol more than did the soy-protein period (-5.0 +/- 0.6%; P<0.01) and the control (-9.5 +/- 0.6%; P<0.01) diet. Soy-nut consumption significantly reduced serum C-peptide concentrations compared with control diet (-8.0 +/- 2.1; P<0.01), but consumption of soy-protein did not. CONCLUSION: Short-term soy-nut consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome.