Spermidine endows macrophages anti-inflammatory properties. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Spermidine endows macrophages anti-inflammatory properties by inducing mitochondrial superoxide-dependent AMPK activation, Hif-1α upregulation and autophagy.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec ;161:339-350. Epub 2020 Oct 24. PMID: 33122005
Distinct metabolic programs, either energy-consuming anabolism or energy-generating catabolism, were required for different biological functions. Macrophages can adopt different immune phenotypes in response to various cues and exhibit anti- or pro-inflammatory properties relying on catabolic pathways associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) or glycolysis. Spermidine, a natural polyamine, has been reported to regulate inflammation through inducing anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show here that the M2-polarization induced by spermidine is mediated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). The levels of mitochondrial superoxide and HOwere markedly elevated by spermidine. Mechanistically, mtROS were found to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which in turn enhanced mitochondrial function. Furthermore, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) was upregulated by the AMPK activation and mtROS and was required for the expression of anti-inflammatory genes and induction of autophagy. Consistent with previous report that autophagy is required for the M2 polarization, we found that the M2 polarization induced by spermidine was also mediated by increased autophagy. The macrophages treated with spermidine in vitro were found to ameliorate Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in mice. Thus, spermidine can elicit an anti-inflammatory program driven by mtROS-dependent AMPK activation, Hif-1α stabilization and autophagy induction in macrophages. Our studies revealed a critical role of mtROS in shaping macrophages into M2-like phenotype and provided novel information for management of inflammatory disease by spermidine.