Spinacia oleracea extract attenuates disease progression and sub-chondral bone changes in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Feb 20 ;18(1):69. Epub 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 29463254
BACKGROUND: Spinacia oleracea is an important dietary vegetable in India and throughout the world and has many beneficial effects. It is cultivated globally. However, its effect on osteoarthritis that mainly targets the cartilage cells remains unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic and chondro-protective effects of SOE on chemically induced osteoarthritis (OA).
METHODS: OA was induced by intra-patellar injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) at the knee joint in rats. SOE was then given orally at 250 and 500 mg.kg daydoses for 28 days to these rats. Anti-osteoarthritic potential of SOE was evaluated by micro-CT, mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and chondrogenic genes, clinically relevant biomarker's and behavioural experiments.
RESULTS: In vitro cell free and cell based assays indicated that SOE acts as a strong anti-oxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent. Histological analysis of knee joints at the end of the experiment by safranin-o and toluidine blue staining established its protective effect. Radiological data corroborated the findings with improvement in the joint space and irregularity of the articular and atrophied femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Micro-CT analysis of sub-chondral bone indicated that SOE had the ability to mitigate OA effects by increasing bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) which resulted in decrease of trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf) by more than 200%. SOE stimulated chondrogenic marker gene expression with reduction in pro-inflammatory markers. Purified compounds isolated from SOE exhibited increased Sox-9 and Col-II protein expression in articular chondrocytes. Serum and urine analysis indicated that SOE had the potential to down-regulate glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, clinical markers of osteoarthritis like cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) and CTX-II. Overall, this led to a significant improvement in locomotion and balancing activity in rats as assessed by Open-field and Rota rod test.
CONCLUSION: On the basis of in vitro and in vivo experiments performed with Spinacea oleracea extract we can deduce that SOE has the ability to alleviate the MIA induced deleterious effects.