Spirulina maxima reduces inflammation and alveolar bone loss in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis.
Phytomedicine. 2021 Jan ;81:153420. Epub 2020 Nov 22. PMID: 33278781
Min Song Kang
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a common oral disease characterized as inflammation on gingival tissue and alveolar bone resorption. Spirulina maxima has been reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on gastric ulcers. However, its effects on gingival inflammation and alveolar bone resorption of periodontitis have not been studied.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the effects of S. maxima on the P. gingivalis-induced periodontitis and to elucidate its mechanism.
METHODS: The phycocyanin contents in S. maxima were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. 8-week old SD rats were induced periodontitis by inoculation with P. gingivalis for 14 days. The rats were then orally treated with S. maxima 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, or indomethacin (IND, positive control) 5 mg/kg for an additional 14 days. Inflammatory responses, expressions of collagenases in gingival tissue, osteoclast formation and activation, alveolar bone resorption, osteogenesis-related markers, and BMP2/Smad signaling in alveolar bone were measured.
RESULTS: Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB were decreased in gingival tissue by S. maxima administration. Also, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) expression were decreased by S. maxima administration. Conversely, S. maxima increased IL-4, anti-inflammatory cytokine from Th2 cells. The osteoprotegerin (OPG) / receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression ratio, which represents osteoclast-osteoblast balance, was increased in S. maxima-treated groups. The alveolar bone loss and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclast cells were also declined in S. maxima-treated groups while the osteoblasts count was increased. Besides, in S. maxima-treated groups, the osteogenesis-related factors were promoted and BMP-2/Smad pathway was up-regulated in a periodontitis condition.
CONCLUSION: S. maxima reduces periodontitis induced by P. gingivalis through anti-inflammatory effect and resultant reduction in bone loss, suggesting that S. maxima might be a potential agent for treating periodontitis.