Nicotine encourages oxidative stress and impairment of rats' brain mitigated by Spirulina platensis lipopolysaccharides and low-dose ionizing radiation.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 2020 Apr 25:108382. Epub 2020 Apr 25. PMID: 32343976
Sawsan M Elsonbaty
In this study, we investigated the protective role of Spirulina platensis-lipopolysaccharides (S-LPS) and low dose-ionizing radiation (LD-IR) against prolonged administration of high nicotine concentration that induced neurotoxicity in the rats' brain. Rats treated with nicotine for two months showed alterations in the oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG)), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), glutathione enzymes (GPx and GST)) as well as several pro-inflammatory markers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-17 (IL-17), and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB)), and induced apoptosis through Caspase-3 activity. Further, it upregulates the mRNA gene expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2B1 and CYP2E1), Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), and Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). Furthermore, it upregulates Phospho-Tau (p-Tau) protein expression. Besides, it downregulates the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAChR) mRNA expression accompanied by a decline in the calcium (Ca) level. S.LPS exhibited neuroprotective activity by counteracting the detrimental effects of chronic nicotine administration. LD-IR demonstrated comparable effects as S.LPS. Exposure of rats to LD-IR enhanced the neuroprotective effects of S.LPS against nicotine toxicity. The light microscopic examination of the brain tissues is in agreement with the biochemical investigations. In conclusion: S.LPS and LD-IR mitigate the oxidative stress and impairment of rats' brain induced by nicotine.