A standardisedBurm. Nees aqueous extract prevents Lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive deficits through suppression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators.
J Adv Res. 2019 Mar ;16:87-97. Epub 2018 Nov 30. PMID: 30899592
Substantial evidence has shown that most cases of memory impairment are associated with increased neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, the potential of a standardisedaqueous extract (APAE) to reverse neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined. Rats were treated with APAE (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg·kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days prior to LPS (1 mg·kg, i.p.)-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment. Spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, while neuroinflammation and oxidative stress were assessed through the measurement of specific mediators, namely, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), antioxidant glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) were also evaluated. LPS caused significant memory deficits in the 2-day MWM protocol, whereas pretreatment with standardised APAE dose-dependently improved performance in the MWM test. APAE treatment also blocked the LPS-induced hippocampal increase in the concentration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and production of ROS and TBARS and enhanced the activities of AChE and BChE. Furthermore, APAE enhanced the decrease in the levels and expression of hippocampal antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) following LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive deficit. The findings from these studies suggested that standardised APAE improved memory and had potent neuroprotective effects against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.