Protective Effect of Fragaria ananassa Crude Extract on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes Suppression, and Apoptosis in Rat Testes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017 May 5 ;18(5). Epub 2017 May 5. PMID: 28475120
Mohammed I Y Elmallah
Cadmium is a deleterious environmental pollutant that threats both animals and human health. Oxidative stress and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been reported to be the main cause of cellular damage as a result of cadmium exposure. We investigate, here, the protective effect of strawberry crude extracts on cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes in rats. Four groups (n = 8) of 32 adult male Wistar rats weighing 160-180 g were used. The control group received 0.9% saline solution all over the experimental period (5 days). Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg CdCl₂. Group 3 was provided only with an oral administration of strawberry methanolic extract (SME) at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group 4 was treated with SME before cadmium injection with the same mentioned doses. It was shown that cadmium exposure results in a significant decrease in both relative testicular weight and serum testosterone level. Analyzing the oxidative damaging effect of cadmium on the testicular tissue revealed the induction of oxidative stress markers represented in the elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and a decrease in the reduced glutathione (GSH) content. Considering cadmium toxicity, the level of the antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), and glutathione reductase (GR) were markedly decreased. Moreover, gene expression analysis indicated significant upregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins, bcl-2-associated-X-protein (BAX), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA) in response to cadmium intoxication, while significant downregulation of the anti-apoptotic, B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene was detected. Immunohistochemistry of the testicular tissue possessed positive immunostaining for the increased level of TNF-α, but decreased number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) stained cells. Administration of SME debilitated the deleterious effect of cadmium via reduction of both LPO and NO levels followed by a significant enhancement in the gene expression level of CAT, SOD2, GPX1, GR, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), Bcl-2, and PCNA. In addition, the SME treated group revealed a significant increase in the level of testosterone and GSH accompanied by a marked decrease in the gene expression level of Bax and TNF-α. In terms of the summarized results, the SME of Fragaria ananassa has a protective effect against cadmium-induced oxidative damage of testes.