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Abstract Title:

Structural and mechanistic insights into 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by natural products.

Abstract Source:

Nat Chem Biol. 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32393899

Abstract Author(s):

Nathaniel C Gilbert, Jana Gerstmeier, Erin E Schexnaydre, Friedemann Börner, Ulrike Garscha, David B Neau, Oliver Werz, Marcia E Newcomer

Article Affiliation:

Nathaniel C Gilbert

Abstract:

Leukotrienes (LT) are lipid mediators of the inflammatory response that are linked to asthma and atherosclerosis. LT biosynthesis is initiated by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) with the assistance of the substrate-binding 5-LOX-activating protein at the nuclear membrane. Here, we contrast the structural and functional consequences of the binding of two natural product inhibitors of 5-LOX. The redox-type inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is lodged in the 5-LOX active site, now fully exposed by disordering of the helix that caps it in the apo-enzyme. In contrast, the allosteric inhibitor 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) from frankincense wedges between the membrane-binding and catalytic domains of 5-LOX, some 30 Å from the catalytic iron. While enzyme inhibition by NDGA is robust, AKBA promotes a shift in the regiospecificity, evident in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in primary immune cells expressing 5-LOX. Our results suggest a new approach to isoform-specific 5-LOX inhibitor development through exploitation of an allosteric site in 5-LOX.

Study Type : In Vitro Study

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