This study describes the adverse effects of the Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Management and outcome of Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine adverse reactions.
Vaccine. 2015 Oct 5 ;33(41):5470-5474. Epub 2015 Aug 12. PMID: 26275478
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines globally. Management of local BCG complications (injection site reactions and suppurative or non-suppurative lymphadenitis) varies between clinicians, and the optimal approach remains uncertain.
AIM: To determine the clinical features, management and outcome of BCG complications at two large acute hospitals in London, United Kingdom.
METHODS: All children presenting with complications of BCG vaccination between January 2008 and December 2013 were included in this observational study. Medical and electronic laboratory records were reviewed to determine clinical features, treatment and outcome.
RESULTS: Sixty children presented with adverse reactions. Two-thirds (65%) presented with BCG lymphadenitis, one-third (30%) presented with injection site complications and two children (3%) presented with both injection site reaction and lymphadenitis; only one child (2%) had disseminated BCG disease. The majority (88%) of children with injection site reactions were managed conservatively; overall, 95% showed complete resolution within 6 months. Among children with lymphadenitis, 46% were managed conservatively, whilst 54% had anti-tuberculous therapy and/or a procedure (aspiration mostly, or surgery); complete resolution was seen in 59% of cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Injection site reactions and non-suppurative lymphadenitis were generally managed conservatively, with good outcomes. There was more variation in management and outcome of suppurative lymphadenitis and the optimal approach remains uncertain.