[Gut microbiome and major depressive disorder : The other side of ourselves].
Nervenarzt. 2016 Oct 27. Epub 2016 Aug 27. PMID: 27787576
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation. Gnotobiotic animal models have become essential for specific research targets. Combining gut microbiome analysis with observations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and various aspects of inflammation helped to gain first insights into the role of the microbiota-gut-brain-axis in depressive disorders. Therapeutic endeavors with psychobiotics have not yet shown their value in clinical studies.