This study showed no difference in efficacy between one-dose and two-dose vaccine schedules. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Challenges in confirming a varicella outbreak in the two-dose vaccine era.
Vaccine. 2012 Nov 6 ;30(48):6935-9. Epub 2012 Aug 8. PMID: 22884663
BACKGROUND: A second dose of varicella vaccine was recommended for U.S. children in 2006. We investigated a suspected varicella outbreak in School District X, Texas to determine 2-dose varicella vaccine effectiveness (VE).
METHODS: A varicella case was defined as an illness with maculopapulovesicular rash without other explanation with onset during April 1-June 10, 2011, in a School District X student. We conducted a retrospective cohort in the two schools with the majority of cases. Lesion, saliva, and environmental specimens were collected for varicella-zoster virus (VZV) PCR testing. VE was calculated using historic attack rates among unvaccinated.
RESULTS: In School District X, 82 varicella cases were reported, including 60 from Schools A and B. All cases were mild, with a median of 14 lesions. All 10 clinical specimens and 58 environmental samples tested negative for VZV. Two-dose varicella vaccination coverage was 66.4% in Schools A and B. Varicella VE in affected classrooms was 80.9% (95% CI: 67.2-88.9) among 1-dose vaccinees and 94.7% (95% CI: 89.2-97.4) among 2-dose vaccinees in School A, with a second dose incremental VE of 72.1% (95% CI: 39.0-87.3). Varicella VE among School B students did not differ significantly by dose (80.1% vs. 84.2% among 1-dose and 2-dose vaccinees, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Laboratory testing could not confirm varicella as the etiology of this outbreak; clinical and epidemiologic data suggests varicella as the likely cause. Better diagnostics are needed for diagnosis of varicella in vaccinated individuals so that appropriate outbreak control measures can be implemented.