Protective effect of Lepidium sativum seed extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human liver cells (HepG2).
Pharm Biol. 2016 ;54(2):314-21. Epub 2015 Apr 17. PMID: 25885937
Ebtesam S Al-Sheddi
CONTEXT: Garden cress [Lepidium sativum (Brassicaceae)] has been widely used to treat a number of ailments in traditional medicine. The pharmacological and preventive potential of Lepidium sativum, such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antihypertensive, anti-ashthamatic, anticancer, and anti-oxidant, are well known.
OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was designed to study the protective effects of chloroform extract of Lepidium sativum seed (LSE) against oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human liver cells (HepG2).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity of LSE and H2O2 was identified by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and morphological changes in HepG2. The cells were pre-exposed to biologically safe concentrations (5-25 μg/ml) of LSE for 24 h, and then cytotoxic (0.25 mM) concentration of H2O2 was added. After 24 h of the exposures, cell viability by MTT, NRU assays, and morphological changes in HepG2 were evaluated. Further, protective effects of LSE on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels induced by H2O2 were studied.
RESULTS: Pre-exposure of LSE significantly attenuated the loss of cell viability up to 48% at 25 µg/ml concentration against H2O2 (LD50 value = 2.5 mM). Results also showed that LSE at 25 µg/ml concentration significantly inhibited the induction of ROS generation (45%) and LPO (56%), and increases the MMP (55%) and GSH levels (46%).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The study suggests the cytoprotective effects of LSE against H2O2-induced toxicity in HepG2. The results also demonstrate the anti-oxidative nature of LSE.