Sub-lethal effects of six neonicotinoids on avoidance behavior and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida).
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Oct 30 ;162:423-429. Epub 2018 Jul 13. PMID: 30015188
Avoidance behavior of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) against six neonicotinoids (NEOs) (acetamiprid, dinotefuram, clothianidin, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, imidacloprid) was studied following the protocol of ISO. The results showed obvious avoidance behavior of E. fetida against the tested insecticides, and the medium effective concentration for avoidance behavior (EC) of the six pesticides was 0.14, 0.55, 0.91, 7.87, 1.32 and 0.77 mg/kg, respectively. Compared to the acute toxicity, avoidance behavior was more sensitive as an indicator of soil contamination with NEOs. Chronic toxicity of above six NEOs to E. fetida was also evaluated; cocoon production, hatchability, cocoon weight and adult weight were all affected in thetest. Cocoon production and hatchability were more sensitive than cocoon weight and adult weight. The reproduction of earthworms were significantly reduced with a 56 d half-maximal effective hatchability concentration (EC) of 0.37, 0.74, 1.30, 3.57, 1.20 and 0.70 mg/kg (acetamiprid, dinotefuram, clothianidin, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, imidacloprid), respectively. Most of the tested NEOs were highly toxic to E. fetida. Avoidance behavior and reproduction damage of E. fetida was observed at very low concentrations. The existing levels of pollution with NEOsin soil frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations, which are likely to have negative biological and ecological impacts on earthworms.