Immunogenicity study of plant-made oral subunit vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).
Vaccine. 2012 Mar 9 ;30(12):2068-74. Epub 2012 Jan 31. PMID: 22300722
Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.
Currently, killed-virus and modified-live PRRSV vaccines are used to control porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome disease (PRRS). However, very limited efficacy of killed-virus vaccines and serious safety concerns for modified-live virus vaccines demand the development of novel PRRSV vaccines. In this report, we investigated the possibility of using transgenic plants as a cost-effective and scalable system for production and delivery of a viral protein as an oral subunit vaccine against PRRSV. Corn calli were genetically engineered to produce PRRSV viral envelope-associated M protein. Both serum and intestine mucosal antigen-specific antibodies were induced by oral administration of the transgenic plant tissues to mice. In addition, serum and mucosal antibodies showed virus neutralization activity. The neutralization antibody titers after the final boost reached 6.7 in serum and 3.7 in fecal extracts, respectively. A PRRSV-specific IFN-γ response was also detected in splenocytes of vaccinated animals. These results demonstrate that transgenic corn plants are an efficient subunit vaccine production and oral delivery system for generation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses against PRRSV.