Effect of Sudharshan Kriya Pranayama on Salivary Expression of Human Beta Defensin-2, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma, and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in Chronic Periodontitis.
Cureus. 2020 Feb 6 ;12(2):e6905. Epub 2020 Feb 6. PMID: 32064220
Introduction Sudharshan kriya pranayama (SKP) is a form of yoga that reduces inflammation and contributes to general health. Very few prior studies have examined the role of pranayama on oral health. We evaluated the clinical status and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after SKP. Materials and methods Ninety male subjects were considered for the study and divided into three groups: subjects with a healthy periodontium (Group1), subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group2), and subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group3). The clinical parameters included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and salivary markers human beta-defensin-2(HBD-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). These parameters and markers were evaluated before and after 90 days of SKP. The data obtained were statistically evaluated by McNemar's test, paired sample t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. Results There was a significant improvement in PI in all three groups. GI showed an improvement in Groups 2 and 3. PPD and CAL also showed an improvement in Group 3. HBD-2 and NF-κB decreased with SKP, whereas PPAR-γ expression increased after the intervention. In Groups 2 and 3 with the decrease in GI, there was a corresponding decrease in HBD-2. In Group 3 with an improvement in PPD and CAL, there was an improvement in PPAR-γ expression. Conclusions The results show that SKP can significantly decrease periodontal inflammation and improve periodontal status. It also effectively improves the expression of PPAR-γ, thereby decreasing salivary levelsof HBD-2 and NF-κB, respectively. Based on our results, pranayama can be an effective adjunct in maintaining oral health.