Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, weight gain, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in Asia: a systematic review.
Nutr Rev. 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14. PMID: 33855443
CONTEXT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is increasing in Asia and several countries are adopting preventive policies to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, evidence on the relation between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic health in Asian populations has not been summarized.
OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, the associations between consumption of SSBs and cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity, T2DM, and CVD, are examined in Asian populations.
DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, and gray literature were searched up to October, 2020 to identify relevant articles.
DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies.
DATA ANALYSIS: When sufficient studies were available, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled estimates (expressed as risk ratio [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]). Heterogeneity was tested and quantified using the Cochrane Q test and I2 statistic, respectively.
RESULTS: Of the 17 studies included, 8 provided results about measures of adiposity (3 on weight change, 4 on body mass index (BMI), 2 on percent body fat, and 1 on abdominal obesity), 6 reported results about T2DM, and 3 reported on different CVD outcomes. High SSB consumption was significantly associated with greater weight gain and with a higher risk of selected CVD outcomes as compared with low consumption. In the meta-analysis, high SSB consumption was associated with greater T2DM risk before (RR, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.15-1.98 for highest vs lowest category; I2 = 76%) and after (RR, 1.38; 95%CI, 1.09-1.73; I2 = 56%) adjustment for BMI.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high SSB consumption is directly associated with weight gain, risk of T2DM, and, possibly, selected CVD outcomes in Asian populations. Public health strategies to reduce SSB consumption in Asian countries are warranted.
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42019129456.Keywords: adiposity. cardiovascular disease, Asia, sugar-sweetened beverages, type 2 diabetes.