Potent induction of total cellular and mitochondrial antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes by cruciferous sulforaphane in rat aortic smooth muscle cells: cytoprotection against oxidative and electrophilic stress.
Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2008;8(3):115-25. Epub 2008 Jul 8. PMID: 18607771
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Tech Corporate Research Center, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA. [email protected]
Sulforaphane, a cruciferous isothiocyanate compound, upregulates cytoprotective genes in liver, but its effects on antioxidants and phase 2 defenses in vascular cells are unknown. Here we report that incubation of rat aortic smooth muscle A10 cells with sulforaphane (0.25-5 microM) resulted in concentration-dependent induction of a spectrum of important cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, the reduced form of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Sulforaphane also increased levels/activities of SOD, catalase, GSH and GST in isolated mitochondria of aortic smooth muscle cells. Time-dependent sulforaphane-induced increases in the mRNA levels for MnSOD, catalase, the catalytic subunit of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, GR, GST-A1, GST-P1, and NQO1 were observed. Pretreatment with sulforaphane (0.5, 1, and 5 microM) protected aortic smooth muscle cells from oxidative and electrophilic cytotoxicity induced by xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine, H2O2, SIN-1-derived peroxynitrite, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and acrolein. Furthermore, sulforaphane pretreatment prevented intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after exposure of the cells to XO/xanthine, H2O2, or SIN-1. Taken together, this study demonstrates that in the aortic smooth muscle cells sulforaphane at physiologically relevant concentrations potently induces a series of total cellular as well as mitochondrial antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, which is accompanied by dramatically increased resistance of these vascular cells to oxidative and electrophilic stress.