Effects ofα-Lipoic Acid, Carnosine, and Thiamine Supplementation in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.
J Med Food. 2018 Dec ;21(12):1197-1203. Epub 2018 Oct 11. PMID: 30311825
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is evolving to an epidemic of the modern world. T2DM is associated with a number of pathological complications, including cardiovascular disease that is mostly promoted by the increased oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of an individualized oral supplementation withα-lipoic acid (ALA), carnosine, and thiamine. For that purpose, 82 obese type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, and were either supplemented daily with 7 mg ALA/kg body weight, 6 mg carnosine/kg body weight, and 1 mg thiamine/kg body weight or placebo for 8 weeks. An array of biochemical tests including the estimation of oxidative stress and platelet aggregation were performed at baseline and at follow-up. Moreover, the antiplatelet activity of each of the supplement's components was determined ex vivo at human and washed rabbit platelets. Glucose and HbAlevels were significantly reduced after supplementation (135.7 ± 19.5 mg/dL vs. 126.5 ± 16.8 mg/dL and 8.3% ± 0.3% vs. 6.03% ± 0.58%, respectively, P < .05); however, insulin was significantly increased (3.6 ± 0.7 μIU/mL vs. 6.8 ± 0.2 μIU/mL, P < .05). The patients treated with the supplement recorded higher follow-up values for HOMA-IR and HOMA-β, and a significant drop in serum hydroperoxide level. Only ALA inhibited platelets aggregation ex vivo through ADP, platelet activating factor, arachidonic acid, epinephrine, collagen, and thrombin pathways. Daily supplementation with an individualized ALA, carnosine, and thiamine supplement effectively reduced glucose concentration in type 2 diabetic patients, probably by increasing insulin production from the pancreas. In addition to that, the reduction of oxidative stress and inhibition of platelet aggregation could potentially provide greater cardiovascular protection. Further studies are needed to fine-tune the supplementation dose-response effects in T2DM patients.