Supplementation with psyllium seed husk reduces myocardial damage in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion.
Nutr Res Pract. 2019 Jun ;13(3):205-213. Epub 2019 May 7. PMID: 31214288
Sun Ha Lim
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by extensive myocardial damage attributed to the occlusion of coronary arteries. Our previous study in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) demonstrated that administration of arabinoxylan (AX), comprising arabinose and xylose, protects against myocardial injury. In this study, we undertook to investigate whether psyllium seed husk (PSH), a safe dietary fiber containing a high level of AX (>50%), also imparts protection against myocardial injury in the same rat model.
MATERIALS/METHODS: Rats were fed diets supplemented with PSH (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/d) for 3 d. The rats were then subjected to 30 min ischemia through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 h reperfusion through release of the ligation. The hearts were harvested and cut into four slices. To assess infarct size (IS), an index representing heart damage, the slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). To elucidate underlying mechanisms, Western blotting was performed for the slices.
RESULTS: Supplementation with 10 or 100 mg/kg/d of PSH significantly reduces the IS. PSH supplementation (100 mg/kg/d) tends to reduce caspase-3 generation and increase BCL-2/BAX ratio. PSH supplementation also upregulates the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and its target genes including antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). PSH supplementation upregulates some sirtuins (NAD-dependent deacetylases) including SIRT5 (a mitochondrial sirtuin) and SIRT6 and SIRT7 (nuclear sirtuins). Finally, PSH supplementation upregulates the expression of protein kinase A (PKA), and increases phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (pCREB), a target protein of PKA.
CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that PSH consumption reduces myocardial I/R injury in rats by inhibiting the apoptotic cascades through modulation of gene expression of several genes located upstream of apoptosis. Therefore, we believe that PSH can be developed as a functional food that would be beneficial in the prevention of MI.