Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication in resting CD4 T cells by resveratrol and pterostilbene.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jun 26. Epub 2017 Jun 26. PMID: 28652233
Chi N Chan
HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells plays a crucial and numerically dominant role during virus transmission at mucosal sites and during subsequent acute replication and T cell depletion. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are plant stilbenoids associated with several health promoting benefits. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit replication of several viruses, including herpes simplex 1 and 2, papillomaviruses, SARS virus and influenza virus. Alone, resveratrol does not inhibit HIV-1 infection of activated T cells, but it does synergize with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in these cells to inhibit reverse transcription. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene completely block HIV-1 infection at low micromolar dose in resting CD4 T cells, primarily at the reverse transcription step. The anti-HIV effect was fully reversed by exogenous deoxynucleosides and Vpx, a simian immunodeficiency virus protein that increases dNTP levels. These findings are consistent with the reported ability of resveratrol to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase and to lower dNTP levels in cells. This study supports the potential use of resveratrol, pterostilbene or related compounds as adjuvants in anti-HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) formulations.