Survey of Fusarium toxins in foodstuffs of plant origin marketed in Germany. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Survey of Fusarium toxins in foodstuffs of plant origin marketed in Germany.
Int J Food Microbiol. 2005 Jan 1 ;97(3):317-26. PMID: 15582742
Institute of Animal Nutrition, Hohenheim University, Emil-Wolff-Str. 10, Stuttgart 70599, Germany. email@example.com
A total of 219 samples of foodstuffs of plant origin, consisting of grain-based food, pseudocereals and gluten-free food as well as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and nuts, were randomly collected during 2000 and 2001 in food and health food stores. A spectra of 13 trichothecene toxins including diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), scirpentriol (SCIRP), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2, HT-2), T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol (NEO) of the A-type as well as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3- and 15-acetyl-DON (3-, 15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) of the B-type were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analysis of zearalenone (ZEA), alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha- and beta-ZOL) was made by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV-detection. Detection limits ranged between 1 and 19 microg/kg. Out of 84 samples of cereal-based including gluten-free foods, 60 samples were positive for at least one of the toxins DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NIV, T-2, HT-2, T-2 tetraol and ZEA, with incidences at 57%, 13%, 1%, 10%, 12%, 37%, 4% and 38%, respectively, whereas SCIRP and its derivatives MAS and DAS, T-2 triol, Fus-X as well as alpha- and beta-ZOL were not detected in any sample of this subgroup. Contents of DON ranged between 8 and 389 microg/kg, for all other toxins determined concentrations were below 100 microg/kg. The pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were free of the toxins investigated. Ten of 85 samples of vegetables and fruits were toxin positive. ZEA and the type A trichothecenes MAS, SCIRP, DAS, HT-2 were detected in 7, 3, 2, 1 and 1 samples, respectively. Out of 35 samples of oilseeds and nuts, 7 samples were toxin positive. HT-2, T-2 and ZEA were detected in 4, 3 and 4 samples, respectively. In vegetables and fruits as well as in oilseeds and nuts, toxin levels were below 50 microg/kg. None of the B-type trichothecenes analysed was found for both subgroups.