Synergistic antiproliferative action of the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol in cultured human cancer cell lines.
In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):69-76. PMID: 15796157
Margaret Leigh Ackland
The consumption of vegetables containing the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol reduces the risk of cancer. We utilized human gut (HuTu-80 and Caco-2) and breast cancer cells (PMC42) to show the synergistic effect of quercetin and kaempferol in reducing cell proliferation. A trend in reduction of total cell counts was seen following a single exposure, a 4-day exposure or a 14-day exposure to quercetin and kaempferol. Combined treatments with quercetin and kaempferol were more effective than the additive effects of each flavonol. The reduction in cell proliferation was associated with decreased expression of nuclear proliferation antigen Ki67 and decreased total protein levels in treated cells relative to controls. In conclusion, the synergistic antiproliferative effect of quercetin and kaempferol demonstrated in cultured human cells has broad implications for understanding the influence of dietary nutrients in vivo, where anticancer effects may be a result of nutrients which act in concert.