Synergistic effects of magnesium ions and simvastatin on attenuation of high-fat diet-induced bone loss.
Bioact Mater. 2021 Aug ;6(8):2511-2522. Epub 2021 Feb 3. PMID: 33665494
Introduction: Magnesium (Mg) has a prophylactic potential against the onset of hyperlipidemia. Similar to statin, Mg is recommended as lipid-lowering medication for hypercholesterolemia and concomitantly exhibits an association with increased bone mass. The combination of statin with Mg ions (Mg) may be able to alleviate the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced bone loss and reduce the side-effects of statin. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of combined Mgwith simvastatin (SIM) for treating HFD-induced bone loss in mice and the involving mechanisms.
Materials and methods: C57BL/6 male mice were fed with a HFD or a normal-fat diet (NFD). Mice were intraperitoneally injected SIM and/or orally received water with additional Mguntil sacrificed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure cytokines and cholesterol in serum and liver lysates. Bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitecture were assessed by micro-computed tomography (μCT) in different groups. The adipogenesis in palmitate pre-treated HepG2 cells was performed under various treatments.
Results: μCT analysis showed that the trabecular bone mass was significantly lower in the HFD-fed group than that in NFD-fed group since week 8. The cortical thickness in HFD-fed group had a significant decrease at week 24, as compared with NFD-fed group. The combination of Mgand SIM significantly attenuated the trabecular bone loss in HFD-fed mice via arresting the osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Besides, such combination also reduced the hepatocytic synthesis of cholesterol and inhibited() mRNA expression in pre-osteoclasts.
Conclusions: The combination of Mgand SIM shows a synergistic effect on attenuating the HFD-induced bone loss. Our current formulation may be a cost-effective alternative treatment to be indicated for obesity-related bone loss.