A Systematic Review of Curcumin and its Derivatives as Valuable Sources of Antileishmanial Agents.
Acta Parasitol. 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26. PMID: 33770343
Aishah E Albalawi
BACKGROUND: In recent years, antimonial agents and other synthetic antileishmanial drugs, such as amphotericin B, paromomycin, and many other drugs, have restrictions in use due to the toxicity risk, high cost, and emerging resistance to these drugs. The present study aimed to review the antileishmanial effects of curcumin, its derivatives, and other relevant pharmaceutical formulations on leishmaniasis.
METHODS: The present study was carried out according to the 06-preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Facility (SyRF) database. Some English-language databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, EBSCO, Science Direct, and Scopus were searched for publications worldwide related to antileishmanial effects of curcumin, its derivatives, and other relevant pharmaceutical formulations, without date limitation, to identify all the published articles (in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies). Keywords included"curcumin","Curcuma longa","antileishmanial","Leishmania","leishmaniasis","cutaneous leishmaniasis","visceral leishmaniasis","in vitro", and"in vivo".
RESULTS: Out of 5492 papers, 29 papers including 20 in vitro (69.0%), 1 in vivo (3.4%), and 8 in vitro/in vivo (27.6%) studies conducted up to 2020, met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review. The most common species of the Leishmania parasite used in these studies were L. donovani (n = 13, 44.8%), L. major (n = 10, 34.5%), and L. amazonensis (n = 6, 20.7%), respectively. The most used derivatives in these studies were curcumin (n = 15, 33.3%) and curcuminoids (n = 5, 16.7%), respectively.
CONCLUSION: In the present review, according to the studies in the literature, various forms of drugs based on curcumin and their derivatives exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial activity against different Leishmania spp. The results revealed that curcumin and its derivatives could be considered as an alternative and complementary source of valuable antileishmanial components against leishmaniasis, which had no significant toxicity. However, further studies are required to elucidate this concluding remark, especially in clinical settings.