Syzygium aromaticum aqueous extract inhibits human neutrophils myeloperoxidase and protects mice from LPS-induced lung inflammation.
Pharm Biol. 2019 Dec ;57(1):56-64. PMID: 30707845
CONTEXT: Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr.&Perry (Myrtaceae), commonly known as clove, originally found in the Muluku Islands in East Indonesia, is widely used as a spice and has numerous medicinal properties.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the antioxidant potential of S. aromaticum aqueous extract (SAAE) in vitro and its protective effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. Superoxide anion generation was detected by cytochrome c reduction assay. HOwas detected by DCFH fluorescence assay. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was mesured by tetramethyl benzidine oxidation method. To study the anti-inflammatory activity of SAAE, lung inflammation was induced in mice (BALB/c) by intra-tracheal instillation of lypopolysaccharide (5 µg/mouse), and SAAE (200 mg/kg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally prior to LPS administration. Bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue were collected to assess inflammatory cells count and total protein content. Metalloproteinases activity was detected by zymography technique.
RESULTS: SAAE inhibited luminol-amplified chemiluminescence of resting neutrophils and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine- or phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated neutrophils, with an inhibitory effect starting at a concentration as low as 0.5 µg/mL. Moreover, SAAE reduced significantly MPO activity and it exhibits a dose-dependent action (IC= 0.5 µg/mL). In vivo results showed that SAAE decreased markedly neutrophil count (From 61% to 15%) and proteins leakage into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Gelatin zymography assay showed that S. aromaticum inhibited MMP-2 (15%) and MMP-9 (18%) activity in lung homogenates.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of SAAE, in vivo, is due to the inhibition of ROS production and metalloproteinases activity via its action on MPO. According to these findings, SAAE could be a potential source of new compounds with anti-inflammatory activity.