Mechanistic insight into the attenuation of gouty inflammation by Taiwanese green propolis via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
J Cell Physiol. 2019 Apr ;234(4):4081-4094. Epub 2018 Oct 28. PMID: 30370562
Dysregulation of NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including gouty arthritis. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome requires priming and activation signals: the priming signal controls the expression of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-1β precursor (proIL-1β), while the activation signal leads to the assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome and to caspase-1 activation. Here, we reported the effects of the alcoholic extract of Taiwanese green propolis (TGP) on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and in vivo. TGP inhibited proIL-1β expression by reducing nuclear factor kappa B activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. Additionally, TGP also suppressed the activation signal by reducing mitochondrial damage, ROS production, lysosomal rupture, c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 phosphorylation and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein oligomerization. Furthermore, we found that TGP inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome partially via autophagy induction. In the in vivo mouse model of uric acid crystal-induced peritonitis, TGP attenuated the peritoneal recruitment of neutrophils, andthe levels of IL-1β, active caspase-1, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lavage ﬂuids. As a proof of principle, in this study, we purified a known compound, propolin G, from TGP and identified this compound as a potential inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicated that TGP might be useful for ameliorating gouty inflammation via inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome.