Tanshinone IIa protects retinal endothelial cells against mitochondrial fission induced by methylglyoxal through glyoxalase 1.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 15 ;857:172419. Epub 2019 May 25. PMID: 31136758
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the onset of diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, in the current study, we investigate whether and how Tanshinone IIa (Tan IIa) from Salvia miltiorrhiza protects bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) against methylglyoxal (MGO) mediated cell dysfunction. The results showed that MGO reduced cell viability in dose dependent manner. The treatment of Tan IIa (50 μM) significantly improved cell viability induced by MGO in BRECs. MGO increased cellular reactive oxygen species formation and cellular nitric oxide (NO) level; enhanced nox1 and iNOS mRNA levels; inhibited prdx1 mRNA level. The treatment of Tan IIa effectually ameliorated cellular oxidative stress. Exposure of MGO resulted in mitochondrial fission and decrease of opa1 and mfn1. No significant difference in mRNA levels of mfn2 and drp1 was detected between MGO and medium. Tan IIa reduced mitochondrial fragmentation, enhanced the mRNA levels of mfn1 and opa1 in MGO cultured BRECs. The short time exposure of cellular antioxidatants, dimethylthiourea (10 mM) and tiron (10 mM) had no effect on mitochondrial fission although they ameliorated cellular reactive oxygen species level. Moreover, overexpression of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) increased key proteins of mitochondrial fusion, including opa1 and mfn1 in BRECs cultured with MGO. However, inhibition of GLO1 by siRNA abolished the effect of Tan IIa on induction of mitochondrial fusion in MGO cultured BRECs. In conclusion, MGO caused the injury of retinal endothelial cells through induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial fission, the treatment of Tan IIa ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and fission induced by AGEs through enhancing GLO1.