Taraxasterol suppresses inflammation in IL-1β-induced rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes and rheumatoid arthritis progression in mice.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Mar 6 ;70:274-283. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 30851708
Previous study has indicated that taraxasterol (TAR), one of bioactive pentacyclic triterpenes mainly isolated from Chinese medicine herb Taraxacum officinale, displays considerable anti-inflammatory effects in various kinds of models. However, its effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have still not been elucidated. In this study, we aim to investigate its anti-inflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of TAR against RA using both interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human fibroblast-like synoviocytes rheumatoid arthritis (HFLS-RA) in vitro and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice in vivo. Firstly, our results demonstrated that TRA significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, and IL-8 and productions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), like MMP-1 and MMP-3 in HFLS-RA in vitro. Moreover, TRA alleviated arthritis progressions and prevented inflammatory processes in the joint tissues of CIA mice in vivo. Further mechanism studies indicated that TRA blocked nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation via modulating inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), IκB kinase (IKK) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). Results also demonstrated that TRA suppressed the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes through blocking expressionsof NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing (ASC), and caspase-1 in both IL-1β-induced HFLS-RA and CIA mice. In conclusions, current findings suggested that TRA might one of considerable therapeutic compounds for relieving rheumatoid arthritis progress via suppressing inflammationsthrough modulating NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasomes pathways.