The role of taurine in improving neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation.
Nutr Neurosci. 2016 Feb 23. Epub 2016 Feb 23. PMID: 26906683
Objectives Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the central nervous system and has important functions in the promotion of brain development. This study aimed to determine the mechanistic role of taurine in improving neuronal proliferation, stem cell proliferation, and neural differentiation. Methods The data for this review were primarily retrieved from the PubMed database from 1985 to 2015 in English. The search string included the keywords taurine, brain development, neuronal, stem cell, proliferation, differentiation, and others. Relevant publications were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. Results This review introduces the source, function, and mechanisms of taurine in brain development and provides additional detail regarding the mechanistic role of taurine in improving neuronal proliferation, stem cell proliferation, and neural differentiation. Many studies concerning these aspects are discussed. Conclusions Taurine plays an important role in brain development, including neuronal proliferation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation, via several mechanisms. Taurine can be directly used in clinical applications to improve brain development because it has no toxic effects on humans.