Abstract Title:

Oxidative stress and dysregulation of the taurine transporter in high-glucose-exposed human Schwann cells: implications for pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.

Abstract Source:

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep;297(3):E620-8. Epub 2009 Jul 14. PMID: 19602579

Abstract Author(s):

Trevor Askwith, Wei Zeng, Margaret C Eggo, Martin J Stevens


In human Schwann cells, the role of taurine in regulating glucose-induced changes in antioxidant defense systems has been examined. Treatment with high glucose for 7 days induced reactive oxygen species, increased 4-hydroxynoneal adducts (20 +/- 5%, P < 0.05) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins (40 +/- 13%, P < 0.05). Increases in these markers of oxidative stress were reversed by simultaneous incubation in 0.25 mM taurine. Both high glucose and taurine independently increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and decreased glutathione levels, but their effects were not additive. Glucose reduced taurine transporter (TauT) mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner with maximal decreases of 66 +/- 6 and 63 +/- 12%, respectively (P < 0.05 both). The V(max) for taurine uptake was decreased in 30 mM glucose from 61 +/- 5 to 42 +/- 3 pmol x min(-1) x mg protein(-1) (P < 0.001). Glucose-induced TauT downregulation could be reversed by inhibition of aldose reductase, a pathway that depletes NADPH and increases osmotic stress and protein glycation. TauT protein was increased more than threefold, and the V(max) for taurine uptake doubled (P < 0.05 both) by prooxidants. TauT downregulation was reversed both by treatment with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid, which increased TauT mRNA by 60% and V(max) by 50% (P < 0.05 both), and by the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil, which increased TauT mRNA 380% and V(max) by 98% (P < 0.01 both). These data highlight the potential therapeutic benefits of taurine supplementation in diabetic complications and provide mechanisms whereby taurine restoration could be achieved in order to prevent or reverse diabetic complications.

Study Type : Human Study

Print Options

Key Research Topics

Sayer Ji
Founder of GreenMedInfo.com

Subscribe to our informative Newsletter & get Nature's Evidence-Based Pharmacy

Our newsletter serves 500,000 with essential news, research & healthy tips, daily.

Download Now

500+ pages of Natural Medicine Alternatives and Information.

This website is for information purposes only. By providing the information contained herein we are not diagnosing, treating, curing, mitigating, or preventing any type of disease or medical condition. Before beginning any type of natural, integrative or conventional treatment regimen, it is advisable to seek the advice of a licensed healthcare professional.

© Copyright 2008-2021 GreenMedInfo.com, Journal Articles copyright of original owners, MeSH copyright NLM.