Efficacy and Safety of Electroacupuncture for Insomnia Disorder: A Multicenter, Randomized, Assessor-Blinded, Controlled Trial.
Nat Sci Sleep. 2020 ;12:1145-1159. Epub 2020 Dec 10. PMID: 33328773
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in treating insomnia.
Patients and Methods: In a multicenter, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial, 150 patients with DSM-5-diagnosed insomnia with Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scores≥ 15 were randomly assigned to three different groups that underwent 10 sessions of electroacupuncture, sham-electroacupuncture, or usual care for 4 weeks from October 2015 to June 2016 at four Korean medicine hospitals, Republic of Korea. The primary outcome included the ISI score at Week 4; thesecondary outcomes included evaluations of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep diary, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), EuroQoL five dimension (EQ-5D), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), and salivary melatonin and cortisol levels. Assessments were performed at baseline(Week 0) and at Weeks 2, 4, 8, and 12.
Results: Compared with the usual care group, electroacupuncture group showed a greater improvement in ISI, PSQI, sleep diary-derived variables and HADS and EQ-5D scores at Week 4. The effects mostly persisted until Week 12. There were no significant differences between electroacupuncture and sham-electroacupuncture groups at Week 4 in all outcome measures, except sleep diary-derived sleep efficiency. However, the ISI score showed a significant difference between these groups at Weeks 8 and 12. Treatment success as per PGIC was significantly and borderline higher for electroacupuncture compared with usual care and sham-electroacupuncture, respectively. No significant changes in salivary melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment were observed in all groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Blinding was maintained in the sham-electroacupuncture group.
Conclusion: Ten sessions of electroacupuncture can improve the sleep quality of patients with insomnia without serious adverse effects. Thus, it can be recommended as an effective, safe, and well-tolerated intervention.