Tetramethylpyrazine exerts a protective effect against injury from acute myocardial ischemia by regulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019 ;24:17. Epub 2019 Feb 26. PMID: 30858867
Objective: We investigated the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on injury related to acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) induced by isoproterenol (ISO).
Materials and methods: Rats were randomly assigned to five groups: control, ISO, ISO + propranolol (10 mg/kg), ISO + TMP (10 mg/kg) and ISO + TMP (20 mg/kg). The rats in the three ISO + groups were pretreated with propranolol or TMP, while the rats in the control and ISO groups were pretreated with an equal volume of saline. Afterwards, the rats in the four administration groups were subcutaneously injected with ISO for two consecutive days. The levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β in the serum were measured usingELISA. The expressions of B-cell lymphoma-associated X-2 (Bax-2), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), MDA5 and SOD1 were determined using western blotting assay. The phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and GSK-3β werealso determined using western blotting assay. The left ventricles of the rats were extracted and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The ST segment was recorded using electrocardiograms (ECGs).
Results: Administration of TMP (10, 20 mg/kg) reduced the levels of MDA and CK and the activities of SOD and LDH in the serum. Pretreatment with TMP significantly reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Treatment with TMP also improved the histopathological alteration and decreased the ST elevation. Furthermore, TMP ameliorated the expressions of Cu, SOD1, MDA5, Bax-2, Bcl-2, p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-GSK-3β in ISO-induced rats.
Conclusions: Tetramethylpyrazine protected against injury due to AMI by regulating the PI3K/Akt /GSK-3β signaling pathway.