Tetramethylpyrazine Nitrone Reduces Oxidative Stress to Alleviate Cerebral Vasospasm in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models.
Neuromolecular Med. 2019 Sep ;21(3):262-274. Epub 2019 May 27. PMID: 31134485
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the deleterious complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), leading to delayed cerebral ischemia and permanent neurological deficits or even death. Free radicals and oxidative stress are considered as crucial causes contributing to cerebral vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Tetramethylpyrazine nitrone (TBN), a derivative of the clinically used anti-stroke drug tetramethylpyrazine armed with a powerful free radical scavenging nitrone moiety, has been reported to prevent brain damage from ischemic stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of TBN on vasospasm and brain damage after SAH. Two experimental SAH models were used, a rat model by endovascular perforation and a rabbit model by intracisternal injection of autologous blood. The effects of TBN on SAH were evaluated assessing basilar artery spasm, neuronal apoptosis, and neurological deficits. TBN treatment significantly attenuated vasospasm, improved neurological behavior functions and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons in both the SAH rats and rabbits. Mechanistically, TBN suppressed the increase in 3-nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine immuno-positive cells in the cortex of SAH rat brain. Western blot analyses indicated that TBN effectively reversed the altered expression of Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome C, and up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expressions. In the in vitro studies, TBN inhibited HO-induced bEnd.3 cell apoptosis and reduced ROS generation. Additionally, TBN alleviated the contraction of rat basilar artery rings induced by HOex vivo. In conclusion, TBN ameliorated SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and neuronal damage. These effects of TBN may be attributed to its anti-oxidative stress effect and up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1.