Theobromine reduces adipogenesis and proinflammatory cytokines. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Inflammatory Microenvironment and Adipogenic Differentiation in Obesity: The Inhibitory Effect of Theobromine in a Model of Human Obesity In Vitro.
Mediators Inflamm. 2019 ;2019:1515621. Epub 2019 Jan 20. PMID: 30804705
Maria Pia Fuggetta
Objective: Obesity is considered a clinic condition characterized by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. The role of macrophages and adipocytokines in adipose tissue inflammation is in growing investigation. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in inflammatory state in obesity are not fully understood though the adipocytokines seem to characterize the biochemical link between obesity and inflammation. The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of theobromine, a methylxanthine present in the cocoa, on adipogenesis and on proinflammatory cytokines evaluated in a model of fat tissue inflammation in vitro.
Methods: In order to mimic in vitro this inflammatory condition, we investigated the interactions between human-like macrophages U937 and human adipocyte cell lines SGBS. The effect of theobromine on in vitro cell growth, cell cycle, adipogenesis, and cytokines release in the supernatants has been evaluated.
Results: Theobromine significantly inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes in mature adipocytes and reduces the levels of proinflammatory cytokines as MCP-1 and IL-1in the supernatants obtained by the mature adipocytes and macrophages interaction.
Conclusion: Theobromine reduces adipogenesis and proinflammatory cytokines; these data suggest its potential therapeutic effect for treating obesity by control of macrophages infiltration in adipose tissue and inflammation.