Ethanolic Extract Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Death by Triggering Abortive Autophagy and Activation of the Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.
Front Oncol. 2019 ;9:795. Epub 2019 Aug 21. PMID: 31497536
Colorectal cancer is considered as the third leading cause of cancer death. In the present study, we investigated the potential anticancer effect and the molecular mechanism ofethanolic extract (OME) against human colorectal cancer cells. We showed that OME exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity in a concentration- and time-dependent manner against two human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT-29 and Caco-2). OME inhibited cell viability, colony growth and induced mitotic arrest of HT-29 cells. Also, OME induced DNA damage, triggered abortive autophagy and activated a caspase 3 and 7-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway, most likely through activation of the TNFα pathway. Time-course analysis revealed that DNA damage occurred concomitantly with abortive autophagy after 4 h post-OME treatment while apoptosis was activated only 24 h later. Blockade of autophagy initiation, by 3-methyladenine, partially rescued OME-induced cell death. Cell viability arose from 37% in control group to 67% in group pre-treated with 3-MA before addition of OME. Inhibition of apoptosis, however, had a minimal effect on cell viability; it rose from 37% in control group to 43% in group pre-treated with Z-VAD-FMK. We also found that OME downregulated survivin in HT-29 cells.Our findings provide a strong evidence thatextract possesses strong anti-colon cancer potential, at least, through induction of autophagy and apoptosis. These finding provide the basis for therapeutic potential ofin the treatment of colon cancer.