Effect of asiatic acid on the Ang II-ATR-NADPH oxidase-NF-κB pathway in renovascular hypertensive rats.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2017 Oct ;390(10):1073-1083. Epub 2017 Jul 21. PMID: 28733880
Asiatic acid, a triterpenoid compound derived from Centella asiatica, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the effects of asiatic acid on hemodynamic alterations, renin-angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and inflammation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats and treated with vehicle, asiatic acid (30 mg/kg/day), or captopril (5 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. We observed that 2K-1C hypertensive rats exhibited hemodynamic alterations such as high blood pressure, heart rate, hindlimb vascular resistance, and low hindlimb blood flow. Signs of RAS activation, such as increased plasma angiotensin II andserum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, enhanced ATR protein expression, and suppressed ATR expression was observed in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Overproduction of vascular superoxide, high levels of plasma MDA, low levels of plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), and upregulation of gp91protein expression were observed in hypertensive rats. Furthermore, inflammation was observed in hypertensive rats, as evidenced by increased plasma TNF-α, NF-κB, and phospho-NF-κB protein expression. Asiatic acid or captopril alleviated hemodynamic alterations, RAS activation, oxidative stress, and inflammation in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. These findings indicate that asiatic acid is an antihypertensive agent that ameliorates hemodynamic alterations in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. This effect may involve one or both of the following mechanisms: the direct effect of asiatic acid on RAS activation, oxidative stress and inflammation, and/or asiatic acid acting as an ACE inhibitor agent to inhibit the Ang II-ATR-NADPH oxidase-NF-κB pathway.