Antioxidant Properties of Fucoidan Alleviate Acceleration and Exacerbation of Hippocampal Neuronal Death Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Gerbils.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 28 ;20(3). Epub 2019 Jan 28. PMID: 30696078
Ji Hyeon Ahn
Fucoidan, a natural sulfated polysaccharide, displays various biological activities including antioxidant properties. We examined the neuroprotective effect of fucoidan against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese gerbils and its related mechanisms. Gerbils received HFD for 12 weeks and fucoidan (50 mg/kg) daily for the last 5 days during HFD exposure, and they were subjected to 5-min tGCI. Pyramidal cell death was observed only in the CA 1 area (CA1) of the hippocampus in non-obese gerbils 5 days after tGCI. However, in obese gerbils, pyramidal cell death in the CA1 and CA2/3 occurred at 2 days and 5 days, respectively, after tGCI. In the obese gerbils, oxidative stress indicators (dihydroethidium, 8-hydroxyguanine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) were significantly enhanced and antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) were significantly reduced in pre- and post-ischemic phases compared to the non-obese gerbils. Fucoidan treatment attenuated acceleration and exacerbation of tGCI-induced neuronal death in the CA1⁻3, showing that oxidative stress was significantly reduced, and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in pre- and post-ischemic phases. These findings indicate that pretreated fucoidan can relieve the acceleration and exacerbation of ischemic brain injury in an obese state via the attenuation of obesity-induced severe oxidative damage.