Grapefruit-Derived Micro and Nanovesicles Show Distinct Metabolome Profiles and Anticancer Activities in the A375 Human Melanoma Cell Line.
Cells. 2020 Dec 21 ;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21. PMID: 33371199
Fruit juice is one of the most easily accessible resources for the isolation of plant-derived vesicles. Here we found that micro- and nano-sized vesicles (MVs and NVs) from fourspecies,,,and, specifically inhibit the proliferation of lung, skin and breast cancer cells, with no substantial effect on the growth of non-cancer cells. Cellular and molecular analyses demonstrate that grapefruit-derived vesicles cause cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint associated with a reduced cyclins B1 and B2 expression levels and the upregulation of cell cycle inhibitor p21. Further data suggest the inhibition of Akt and ERK signalling, reduced intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and cathepsins expressions, and the presence of cleaved PARP-1, all associated with the observed changes at the cellular level. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics reveals distinct metabolite profiles for the juice and vesicle fractions. NVs exhibit a high relative amount of amino acids and organic acids whereas MVs and fruit juice are characterized by a high percentage of sugars and sugar derivatives. Grapefruit-derived NVs are in particular rich in alpha-hydroxy acids and leucine/isoleucine, myo-inositol and doconexent, while quininic acid was detected in MVs. Our findings reveal the metabolite signatures of grapefruit-derived vesicles and substantiate their potential use in new anticancer strategies.