Grape seed procyanidin extract against lung cancer: the role of microrna-106b, bioavailability, and bioactivity.
Oncotarget. 2018 Mar 20 ;9(21):15579-15590. Epub 2018 Feb 16. PMID: 29643994
MiR-106b is an oncomir and a potential target for anti-cancer therapy. We hypothesize that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSE) exerts antineoplastic effects on lung cancer through modulations of miR-106b and its downstream target. We found that GSE significantly down-regulated miR-106b in a variety of lung neoplastic cells and increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A () mRNA and protein (p21) levels. Transfection of miR-106b mimics reversed the up-regulations ofmRNA and p21, abrogated the GSE induced anti-proliferative and anti-invasive properties in lung cancer cells. Oral gavage of leucoselect phytosome (LP), a standardized GSE to athymic nude mice down-regulatedmRNA and miR-106b expressions, and increasedmRNA expression in tumor xenografts, correlating to significant reduction of tumor growth. To assess bioavailability, GSE and metabolites in plasma levels, between 60-90 minutes after gavage of LP were measured by LC/MS at treatment week 4 and 8. A novel bioactivity assay was also developed using lung homogenates from treated mice co-cultured with human lung cancer cells. LP-treated mouse lung homogenates significantly reduced proliferations of various lung cancer cells. Our findings reveal novel antineoplastic mechanisms by GSE, further define the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of LP, and support the continued investigation of LP against lung cancer.