Protective effects of ethanolic extract of rosemary against lead-induced hepato-renal damage in rabbits.
Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2016 Sep ;68(8):451-61. Epub 2016 Jul 21. PMID: 27449700
Wafaa A M Mohamed
In traditional medicine, Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf is used as a curative herbal therapy for the treatment of several diseases. The protective effects of rosemary in toxic effects of some environmental pollutants are known. However, there is paucity of information about its protective effects on lead acetate (LD) toxicity. To assess the protection of rosemary ethanolic extracts (REE) on LD-induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity, male albino rabbits were treated with REE (30mg/kg) and/or LD (30mg LD/kg) by gavage administration for 30 days. The total phenolic compound content in REE was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu's assay and phyto-constituents were isolated and identified using gas chromatographic and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The protective effect of REE in LD-induced liver and renal dysfunction and blood cells was evaluated by estimating blood biomarkers of liver and renal damage, histological, and biochemical examinations. Antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation biomarker, protein and glycogen contents were estimated in both liver and kidney homogenates. The GC-MS analysis revealed that REE is rich in phenolic compounds including camphor, phytol, borneol, caryophyllene oxide, isopulegol, thymol, and verbenone. REE pre-treatment significantly (P<0.05) suppressed levels of LD induced hepatic and renal damage products as well as lipid peroxidation. In contrast, pre-treatment using REE significantly (P<0.05) decreased LD-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes, protein, and glycogen content. Additionally, REE preserved blood cells and their structure and renal and hepatic architecture. In conclusion, these findings revealed that REE protects from toxic effects of LD possibly through its free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities.