The chemical environmental pollutants BPA and BPS induce alterations of the proteomic profile of different phenotypes of human breast cancer cells: A proposed interactome.
Environ Res. 2020 12 ;191:109960. Epub 2020 Jul 24. PMID: 33181973
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death in women. Despite efforts for its early detection, its worldwide incidence continues to increase. Thus, identification of risk factors for its development and new targets for its therapy are of vital importance. Environmental pollutants derived from human activity have been associated with predisposition to the development of cancer. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor compound (EDC) widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonates, and it has affinity for the estrogen receptor (ER). Scientific evidence has proposed an association between increased incidence of breast cancer and BPA exposure at lower doses. Among worldwide concerns with BPA exposure, different industries proceeded to replace BPA with analogs such as bisphenol S (BPS), which is now employed in products labelled as BPA-free. Nevertheless, recent studies exhibit that its exposure results in altered mammary gland development and morphogenesis; and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation. Of note, most of the effects of both BPA and BPS have been performed in estrogen-dependent breast cancer models. However, gaps in knowledge still exist on the roles and mechanisms that both compounds, specifically BPS, may play in cancer initiation and development in hormone-dependent and other types of breast cancer. Thus, the aim of the present study was to deepen the understanding of biological targets modulated by these ubiquitous pollutants in different breast cancer cell lines, representing two scenarios of this pathology: hormone-dependent and hormone-independent breast cancer. Results point out that both compounds induced proliferation in ER positive cells, not showing this effect in the ER-negative breast cancer cells. Different targets modified at the proteomic level in both breast cancer scenarios were also identified. Stem cell markers (eg. CD44) and invasion proteins (eg. MMP-14) were importantly increased by BPA and BPS in ER-positive breast cancer cells. In contrast, growth factors and associated receptors such as EGFR and TGF-β were induced by BPS in the ER-negative breast cancer cells; both pollutants induced an increase of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein secretion. This finding suggests that the use of BPS must be considered with more caution than BPA, since it can act independently of the presence of the hormonal receptor. These findings show new evidence that BPA and BPS exposure can contribute to breast cancer development and progression. Our results suggest that both BPA and BPS must be considered equally as outstanding risk factors for this pathology.