Association Between Acute Infectious Mononucleosis and Vitamin D Deficiency.
Viral Immunol. 2016 Aug 9. Epub 2016 Aug 9. PMID: 27505106
Epstein-Barr virus and vitamin D both have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, especially multiple sclerosis (MS). Vitamin D influences both innate and adaptive immune responses and has been linked to increased susceptibility to other viral infections such as influenza. Here we aimed to examine the association between vitamin D and acute infectious mononucleosis (IM).This study is a case-control study that was conducted on IM patients and a control group of healthy individuals at infectious disease clinics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were recruited from January to December 2014. The viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM titer and vitamin D levels were measured at the time of acute infection in IM patients. We also measured vitamin D levels in healthy controls recruited during the same period of time. A total number of 60 IM patients with the mean age of 23.26 ± 7.59 and a healthy control group with the mean age of 25.13 ± 6.72 were enrolled. In the IM patients, there was no significant association between 25(OH) D3 levels and VCA IgM titers (r = 0.190, p = 0.146). Mean 25(OH) D3 levels in IM patients were significantly lower than in the control group (15.61 ± 9.72 vs. 21.41 ± 12.64, p = 0.006). Our findings showed significantly lower vitamin D levels in IM patients at the time of infection than in the control group, providing some evidence that the two major risk factors for autoimmune diseases (e.g., MS) might notbe independent risk factors.