Memory Function, Neurological, and Immunological Biomarkers in Allergic Asthmatic Mice Intratracheally Exposed to Bisphenol A.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 8 ;16(19). Epub 2019 Oct 8. PMID: 31597243
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a major constituent of plastic products, including epoxy resin containers, mobile phones, dental sealants, as well as electronic and medical equipment. BPA is recognized as an endocrine system-disrupting chemical which has toxic effects on the brain and reproductive system. However, little is known about the effects of co-exposure of BPA with allergens on the memory function and neurological as well as immunological biomarker levels. In this study, we examined the effects of intratracheal instillation of BPA on the memory function and neuroimmune biomarker levels using a mouse model of allergic asthma. Male C3H/HeJ Jcl mice were given three doses of BPA (0.0625 pmol, 1.25 pmol, and 25 pmol BPA/animal) intratracheally once a week, and ovalbumin (OVA) intratracheally every other week from 5 to 11 weeks old. At 11 weeks of age, a novel object recognition test was conducted after the final administration of OVA, and the hippocampi and hypothalami of the animals were collected after 24 h. The expression levels of the memory function-related genes N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, inflammatory cytokines, microglia markers, estrogen receptor-alpha, and oxytocin receptor were examined by real-time RT-PCR (real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemical methods. Impairment of the novel object recognition ability was observed in the high-dose BPA-exposed mice with allergic asthma. In addition, the allergic asthmatic mice also showed downregulation of neurological biomarkers, such as NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus but no significant effect on immunological biomarkers in the hypothalamus. These findings suggest that exposure to high-dose BPA triggered impairment of memory function in the allergic asthmatic mice. This is the first study to show that, in the presence of allergens, exposure to high-dose BPA may affect memory by modulating the memory function-related genes in the hippocampus.