These findings support 6-shogaol's clinical promise as a potential candidate for HCC therapy - GreenMedInfo Summary
6-Shogaol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cells through pleiotropic mechanisms.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jun 20 ;762:449-458. Epub 2015 Jun 20. PMID: 26101062
Shogaols are a group of the active constituents of ginger that have been identified to have various biological activities. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor activity of 6-shogaol in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species as a putative mechanism of action. HCC cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7, were used to study the in vitro anti-cancer activity of 6-shogaol via the application of various molecular biology techniques. Results showed that 6-shogaol effectively inhibited the cell viability, caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis in HCC cells as indicated by MTT assay, DAPI nuclear staining, annexin V assay, cell cycle analysis, and activation of caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed the ability of 6-shogaol to target cancer survival signaling pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Akt. In addition, 6-Shogaol induced alteration of cyclin proteins expression and caused cleavage of protein kinase C delta. Furthermore, 6-Shogaol was able to induce the production of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated proteins and the consequent activation of autophagy in HepG2 cells. Taken together, the current study highlights evidences that 6-shogaol induces apoptosis, modulates cyclins expression and targets cancer survival signaling pathways in HCC cell lines, at least in part, via the production of reactive oxygen species. These findings support 6-shogaol's clinical promise as a potential candidate for HCC therapy.