Next-generation and further transgenerational effects of bisphenol A on zebrafish reproductive tissues.
Heliyon. 2018 Sep ;4(9):e00788. Epub 2018 Sep 15. PMID: 30225382
Next-generation effects and further transgenerational effects of an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated in zebrafish. The effects of BPA treatment through dietary administration in male and female zebrafish on reproductive factors, such as gonadal activity, fertility, hatching rate and malformation in subsequent generations, were examined through the third filial (F3) generation. BPA treatment of initial generation (F0) not only caused retraction of the ovaries and testes but also lowered the survival rate and increased the rate of malformation of the offspring. Although the overall phenotypes of the surviving first filial (F1) generation offspring of treated fish initially appeared to be normal, we found abnormalities in their reproductive tissues after they matured to adulthood. Although the juveniles were fed a normal diet, the ovaries of 40% of the F1 generation fish remained small and did not develop vitellogenic oocytes. Moreover, sterile male fish appeared at a higher percentage (48%) than control (10%). Adverse transgenerational effects on the fecundity of the second filial (F2) and F3 generation fish were also observed. In each generation, survival rate of embryos were significantly low and abnormal embryos were appeared in offspring from BPA treated ancestral. These results demonstrate that the effects of BPA are transferred to subsequent generations not only through oocytes but also through sperm.