Mechanisms Underlying the Inhibition of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Anorexia and Fatigue by Royal Jelly in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients and the Correlation between Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor and Inflammatory Mediators.
Med Sci (Basel). 2020 Oct 9 ;8(4). Epub 2020 Oct 9. PMID: 33050250
Inflammation is a common adverse event of anti-cancer therapy. Royal jelly (RJ) modulates inflammation by regulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6 produced by macrophages. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a crucial regulator of macrophage activities, and we hypothesized that RJ alters M-CSF levels. In this randomized controlled trial, we investigated the associationbetween M-CSF and adverse events in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) after an oral intake of RJ (= 16) or placebo (= 17). The serum levels of M-CSF, TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-6 were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and their temporal changes and correlation between such changes were analyzed. The post-/pretreatment ratio of M-CSF levels was associated with anorexia after 2 weeks and fatigue after 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The M-CSF level inthe RJ group was higher than that in the placebo group at the same timepoints. The TNF-α level in the RJ group was lower than that in the placebo group between 6 and 12 weeks, and the TGF-β level in the RJ group was higher than that in the placebo group; however, contrasting findings were detectedafter 12 weeks. Additionally, the M-CSF level was significantly correlated with the TGF-β level after 4 weeks and IL-6 level after 8 and 10 weeks. Among TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-6, the post-/pretreatment ratio of TGF-β after 12 weeks was associated with TKI-induced anorexia, and the ratios after 10and 12 weeks were associated with fatigue. Our results demonstrated that an oral intake of RJ suppressed anorexia and fatigue via complex mechanisms associated with inflammation-related factors, such as M-CSF and TGF-β in renal cell carcinoma patients treated with TKIs. In addition, we newly foundthat such RJ-related effects were dependent on the treatment duration.