Efficacy of high-affinity liposomal astaxanthin on up-regulation of age-related markers induced by oxidative stress in human corneal epithelial cells.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2019 Jan ;64(1):27-35. Epub 2018 Nov 30. PMID: 30705509
Decreases in tear volume, unstable tear films and excessive tear evaporation are known to cause desiccation and hyperosmolar stress. These, in turn, induce oxidative stress that is thought to cause dry eye, which is also considered to be age-related disease. We hypothesized that oxidative stress induces up-regulation of age-related markers, and that the antioxidant astaxanthin prepared as a liposomal formulation may be a candidate for the treatment of dry eye. Herein, we examined age-related markers in andry eye model, and evaluated the efficacy of high-affinity liposomes containing astaxanthin. Thedry eye model showed desiccation time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species. We confirmed the up-regulation of p53, p21 and p16 as a function of desiccation time. Pretreatment with both neutral and slightly-positively-charged astaxanthin liposomal formulations showed significant suppression of up-regulation of all markers, with the positively-charged liposomes exhibiting the greatest efficacy. Furthermore, positively-charged liposomes labeled with fluorescent dyes demonstrated much higher affinity to normal human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) than neutral liposomes. Taken together, we confirmed the up-regulation of age-related markers, especially p16, in andry eye model, and demonstrated the potential of high-affinity liposomal astaxanthin for the treatment of dry eye.